Solar Installations

Solar installationsSolar energy will play an important role in our future energy supply, to the advantage of both the environment and the economy. This book focuses on water-based solar heating technology, presenting basic principles on solar radiation and the solar heating system, including details on orientation and output, sizing, the solar collector, the solar circuit, heat exchangers, heat stores and overall system technology.

This is followed by a detailed description of the following practical applications: Multi-family dwellings, Single-family dwellings, Outdoor pools, Large-scale solar heating technology. Other applications are also covered, including camp-sites, sports facilities, schools and industry.

Key ratios are provided with practical examples, producing a clear picture that will enable readers to make a preliminary study of the technology and associated economics and decide on the applicability of solar heating in different projects. The book offers different participants in the building and building services sectors an opportunity to understand and use solar heating. The potential and diversity of solar energy is made clear with additional sections on solar electricity, passive solar and solar air heating. The author closes with a summary on the current position and likely future of solar energy.

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PREFACE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi
1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Solar radiation 1
1.2 Available energy 2
2. THE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM 4
2.1 Orientation and output 4
2.2 Sizing 5
2.3 The solar collector 6
2.3.1 Flat-plate solar collectors 7
2.3.2 Drainback solar collectors 11
2.3.3 Evacuated solar collectors 11
2.3.4 Concentrating solar collectors 13
2.3.6 Positioning 15
2.3.7 Efficiency 16
2.3.8 Heat production 17
2.3.9 Testing and certifying solar collectors 19
2.4 The solar circuit 21
2.4.2 Operating package 21
2.4.3 Pump 22
2.4.4 Control valve and flowmeter 24
2.4.5 Non-return valve 24
2.4.6 Filter 24
2.4.7 Filling and drainage 24
2.4.8 Expansion vessel/drainage vessel 24
2.5 Heat exchangers 28
2.5.1 Finned-coil heat exchanger 28
2.5.2 Flat-plate heat exchanger 28
2.6 Heat stores 30
2.6.1 Storage system .30
2.6.2 Steel tanks 31
2.6.3 Pit stores 33
2.6.4 Rock cavern stores 33
2.6.5 Ground storage 35
2.6.6 Salt stores/chemical heat pumps 36
2.7 System technology 37
2.7.1 System principles 3 7
2.7.2 Natural convection systems38
2.7.3 Pumped systems 39
3. SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS 44
3.1 Multi-family dwellings 44
3.2 Single-family dwellings 45
3.3 Outdoor pools 48
3.4 Large-scale solar heating
technology 48
3.6 Sports facilities 50
3.7 Schools 51
3.8 Industry 52
4. SOLAR HEATING FOR MULTI-FAMILY DWELLINGS 54
4.1 Use 54
4.4 Key ratios 56
4.4.1 Heating and DHW demand 56
4.4.2 Solar collector area and storage volume 56
4.4.3 Heat production 57
4.5 System combinations 57
4.6 Operation and maintenance 58
4.7 Summary 58
5. SOLAR HEATING FOR SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLINGS
5.1 Use 60
5.2 Sizing 60
5.3 Key ratios 64
5.4 System combinations 64
5.4.1 Solar heating and electricity, storage
boiler 64
5.4.2 Solar heating and fossil fuels (gas/oil) 66
5.4.3 Solar heating and pellets 66
5.4.4 Solar heating and wood 67
5.4.5 Solar heating and separate heating
units 68
5.4.6 Kitchen boilers 70
5.4.7 Water-cooled individual heating units 70
5.4.8 Solar heating and heat pumps 71
5.4.9 Culvert systems 72
5.4.10 Domestic hot water (DHW) systems 72
5.5 Operation and maintenance 73
5.6 Summary 74
6. SOLAR HEATING FOR OUTDOOR POOLS 77
6.1 Energy and heat data 77
6.2 Direct systems: unglazed solar collectors 78
6.2.1 Operation 79
6.2.2 Solar collector location 81
6.2.3 Sizing 82
6.3 Indirect systems: glazed solar collectors 83
6.3.1 Solar collector location 84
6.3.2 Design and sizing 84
6.4 Key ratios for energy and economy 86
6.5 Operation and maintenance 87
6.6 Summary 88
7. LARGE-SCALE SOLAR HEATING TECHNOLOGY 90
7.1 Design and calculation 90
7.2 Short-term heat stores 90
7.3 Seasonal heat stores 92
7.4 Key ratios 94
7.5 Operation and maintenance 95
7.6 Summary 96
8. ECONOMY AND PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS 97
8.1 Methods of calculation 97
8.2 Practical example: profitability analysis 98
9. PROCUREMENT 99
9.1 Survey 99
9.2 Methods of procurement 99
9.2.1 Specification of requirements 100
10. OTHER SOLAR TECHNOLOGIES 102
10.1 Solar electricity 102
10.1.1 History 103
10.1.2 Technology 103
10.1.3 Areas of use 106
10.1.4 Design and sizing: worked examples 108
10.1.5 Practical hints for installing PV
systems 109
10.2 Passive solar heating 110
10.3 Solar air heating 113
10.3.1 Open solar air systems 114
10.3.2 Closed solar air systems 114
10.3.3 Solar walls 115
10.3.3 Solar chimneys 116
11. SUMMARY AND A LOOK TO THE FUTURE 117
REFERENCES AND FURTHER
READING 124
GLOSSARY 126
INDEX129

Sol, värme och Lars Andrén

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Kommunikationsstudie Solel

För EMC (Campus Varberg) räkning har DrivKraft tagit fram en kommunikationsstudie. Projektets övergripande mål är att främja en ökad produktion och användning av solenergi i Halland.

Kommunikationsstudie solel (pdf)

Lars Andrén
070 - 53 585 80
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Bland uppdragsgivarna

  • Statens Energimyndighet
  • Stockholm Stad
  • HSB
  • Energikontor Sydost
  • NENET
  • Fortum
  • Halmstad Högskola
  • Solar Region Skåne
  • Riksbyggen
  • Skarland Press (Norge)
  • Hållbar Utveckling Väst
  • Studieförbundet Vuxenskolan
  • Sveriges Tekniska Forsknings- institut
  • TermoTech
  • easyFairs
  • Sveriges Exportråd
  • Sparbanken Vänersborg
  • Handelsbanken Falkenberg
  • Göteborgs Stad
  • Svenska Solenergiföreningen
  • SERO
  • Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting
  • Varbergs Sparbank
  • Slussen.Biz
  • BAXI
  • L.E.B. Consult
  • SWECO
  • Södertörns Fjärrvärme
  • Svenska Kyrkan